First you need to determine what can be done — and that depends on the type of crystal you’ve scratched. It looks like you have the slightly blue tinted TC cyclops Thanks for the insight, Amis. Now, all Rolex watches feature the sapphire crystal. Scratches in a well worn Rolex Sea Dweller. There are 3 main materials used for watch crystals: acrylic, mineral glass, and sapphire/synthetic sapphire. Insured shipping with tracking by DHL. After testing out some ways to polish off plastic I figured out that the watch had a sapphire. Sapphire armor is also extremely heat resistant. It still looks new. wearing gloves helps this process move a little faster. I know it's in the warranty. Luckily, most scratches can be easily removed with a bit of polish and a soft buffing cloth. PolyWatch is a cream that contains a very light abrasive material that will gently but effectively grind down your acrylic/plastic watch glass crystal, resulting in a scratch-free finish. The first is made of a synthetic acrylic resin. The first is made of a synthetic acrylic resin. Quick Answer: How Long Should Clay Dry Before Firing? Mr Gearchange. Step 6. My old crystal was fitted pretty tight to the watch case flange so I had to use a razor blade to lift it as well. Watch Crystal Types. All Omega now is both side AR coated and rolex is starting the same on some models ONLY. KeepCup products, www.today.com What happens if you put something in, Why is trapped air a good insulator? Scratches and wristwatches are a fact of life. Can sapphire crystal scratch? It has deep scratches throughout and looks like it has been buffed a few times. Strap material: steel Clasp: folding Crystal scratched at 12 o'clock. Rolex makes two different types of watch cover. 2. They get scratched, shattered (if they are sapphire), or overused to the point that it gets very hard to see through them. There are few techniques that effectively remove scratches from your used Rolex watch. Rolex /Tudor Replicas; PLEASE CONSIDER SUPPORTING RWI TODAY ! Many watch crystals are equipped with […] Rolex Forums - Rolex Watch Forum > Rolex & Tudor Watch Topics > Rolex General Discussion: Why no anti-reflective coated crystal on rolex? How Easy is it to Scratch Sapphire Crystal on a Rolex (Milgauss) That sounds like a good idea. Scratches in a well worn Rolex Sea Dweller. I wish I had discovered this product years ago! Rolex is better known, and makes all of its movements in-house, which high-end collectors like. Is anyone familiar with ways to get these removed? A few drops and 2-3 minutes rubbing as directed with the supplied cloth and it was as new. Yes, it will be expensive. This new watch crystal tool kit works in minutes and anyone can do it! Begin by applying a drop of the cream on the crystal and start polishing the crystal with circular and slow motions. http://www.watchtimela.com - In this video I show how to repair a scratched watch crystal with a few simple tools and some patience. Let me tell you, the crystal is so smooth and glossy now. There are many manufacturers in the world that make generic replacement crystals for any watch, and to purchase a replacement for your Rolex crystal is not that complicated. I can live with that. © 2021 WatchStyler. I've had my Rolex for several years and it has many tiny nicks and faint scratches on the crystal. Scratches on Gen Rolex Plexi Crystal? 3 réponses. Vintage Rolex watches are always special in their own right, but when they feature the Tiffany & Co. logo, it just makes them even more distinct and exciting. They get scratched, shattered (if they are sapphire), or overused to the point that it gets very hard to see through them. Now you can replace plastic crystal with a scratch resistant sapphire crystal and you do not have to change the crystal as long as you own the watch. Rolex’s first sapphire crystal appeared on the Oyster Quartz in 1970 and then again in the Submariner in 1981. Materials. The crusty pawn shop Rolex Datejust 16030 came with a scratched and scuffed acrylic crystal that was beyond saving. I have an older model Rolex with an acrylic crystal. Just get it polished, from any certified watch agent, this is if the crystal is not scratched . Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Seiko Solar Women's Recraft White Dial Two Tone Watch SUT246 Scratched Crystal at the best … You'll be paying for the crystal on top of this. If it's not very visible I'd ignore it. If you use the tool, rotate it in circular motions, never pressing too hard in any one spot. Start with the 6-micron paste, spread it around the face and use a soft cloth, or use a hand-held Dremel tool with the felt tip. Rolex’s synthetic sapphire crystals were created to be extremely hard and durable, proving extremely resistant to scratching, unlike acrylic. It's easy to do and makes my watch look like new. Question: What Things Fail A Home Inspection? However, is it so easy to take your watch to an authorized Rolex dealer to have your crystal replaced? Left a nice deep scratch on the Crystal. Posted Sapphire scores a solid 9 out of 10 on the Mohs mineral hardness scale, just below diamond, making it even more scratch resistant than mineral glass. Sitemap. We do recommend replacing the bezel as well because your old bezel will not hold your new sapphire crystal. Question: Does The Human Body Use Titanium. It’s an amazing paradox that Rolex makes so many more watches than any other mechanical watch maker, yet they keep their value better. - Check under a bright light to be sure its crystal clear. Sapphire crystal is used by the high-end watchmakers. !, Get low price Plastic Watch Crystal Scratch Remover Polish Tool and save with shipping in the USA. Any deep dings or scratches Rolex will leave, but the daily wear surface scratches Rolex is able to remove at a regularly scheduled service. By polishing the scratched links, you can obtain a brand new look on your used Rolex bracelet. A Rolex crystal is expensive to replace, so I`d advise caution when trying to fix it. Diamond Bezels for 41mm case Rolex Watches, Diamond Bezels for Rolex Submariner and GMT. For crystal watch faces, you may have to try three different grades of diamond paste, 6-, 3- and .25-micron pastes. Répondre Enregistrer. The acrylic material may scratch more easily than its counterpart, but these scratches can usually be buffed out and repaired. However, it still bothers me seeing the scratch. polyWatch 6417084129062 SS013059000 Plastic Watch Crystal Scratch Remover Polish Tool polyWatch Plastic Polish offers a simple and reliable solution for removing scratches from plastic watch crystal. Rolex watches are fitted with a sapphire crystal (the glass face of the watch) that can only be scratched with a diamond. Custom BigCommerce Templates by Madwire Media†. While these two models shared the same angular case shape and integrated bracelet as Rolex’s quartz watches, they were actually automatic watches. For years, most of the Rolex sports line possessed acrylic crystals because of these properties. Your watch glass in all probability is not made of natural sapphire since natural sapphire has impurities that would give it a bit of color. Thanks for the insight, Amis. Free Standard Shipping and Free Evaluations. I subsequently sourced a T22 domed crystal and sent it off to HQ Milton’s in-house watchmaker for a service. I originally found this watch three years ago for sale from a pawn shop in West Virginia with a horribly scratched crystal and blurry pictures. Clasp material: steel Strap length: 16 cm Comes in a generic box. First, the original Rolex crystal is slightly domed. If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. But, in most cases, replacement is the only option. How long and how much pressure you should apply depends on how deep and how badly the crystal is scratched. One way to remove scratches is to use a polishing cloth. They’re quite durable and resistant to scratches, but they are rather difficult to fix. When did Rolex switch to sapphire crystal? In addition to needing a complete overhaul of the Poljot (Полет) 2612.1 movement (which I cover in my article, Restoring a Mechanical Russian Alarm Watch), the acrylic crystal was badly scratched. This is the most expensive of the three types of watch crystal, and is preferred because of its resistance to scratches and shattering. I can live with that. Reply Reply Author. Warm weather and, Why am I getting ants in my house? I recently purchased a Sekonda branded mechanical alarm wristwatch, made in the USSR in the early 1990s. Removing the scratches will help restore the watch to its original beauty without causing damage to the watch. Remember: Your Rolex belongs to you and to nobody else. I was in a bicycle accident. Unfortunately the watch crystal is very scratched up. But this crystal is past buffing—it needs to be replaced. 5% coupon applied at checkout Save 5% with coupon. User Tag List. The Rolex Perpetual was the last watch to possess a sapphire crystal which was not until 1991. Free delivery for many products! 5PCS 37/38/39MM Round Flat Watch Crystal Lens Glass Replacement Parts for Watchmaker Repair (37mm) 4.5 out of 5 stars 16. You might as well get the real thing for the extra $50. I'll show you how I remove scratches and polish my Rolex Submariner. Sapphire scores a solid 9 out of 10 on the Mohs mineral hardness scale, just below diamond, making it even more scratch resistant than mineral glass. It has deep scratches throughout and looks like it has been buffed a few times. The innovative plastic deformation technology, which slightly softens the clear lacquer on the crystal filling in any areas of damage, polishes away scratches and imperfections at the blink of an eye. If this is the case, it could easily scratch. Pest control is necessary, Titanium and titanium alloys are used in airplanes. » Confused About Rolex Models? Do you think they'd be able to repair it? 1630. Re: Rolex sapphire crystal replacement cost – 2017. To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below. Rolex simply won't do it. The innovative plastic deformation technology, which slightly softens the clear lacquer on the crystal filling in any areas of damage, polishes away scratches and imperfections at the blink of an eye. on 27th Nov 2012, All prices are in USD The crystal is quite scratched up because this watch is pre-sapphire crystal, which is much more scratch resistant than this acrylic crystal. For crystal watch faces, you may have to try three different grades of diamond paste, 6-, 3- and .25-micron pastes. (This sounds easy but itll). These crystals can only be scratched by diamonds or other minerals graded as a 10 on the hardness scale. Can I just polish it myself, or do I need to go to a specialist? You can get an aftermarket crystal for about $150. Your story sounds a bit "fishy". the new one was a flat crystal with no returns but with a seperate plastic seal. Sapphire crystal is used by the high-end watchmakers. However, you should know the different watch crystal … Of A Rolex Oyster Bracelet By: John B. Holbrook, II March 19th, 2006 . Kathd Member . https://blog.esslinger.com/how-to-remove-scratches-from-glass-watch-crystals All that is required is an ammonia-free soap and a polishing cloth designed for use with fine jewelry. Acrylic is used for its low cost and its capacity to be polished. It's an easy at home restoration. Rolex Datejust. Reference: 1601 Self-winding. Rolex Oyster Perpetual Date Reference 1500 Self-winding Case material steel Diameter 34 mm Silver dial Dial without numbers Bezel material steel Plexiglas crystal (scratched) Strap material steel Strap length 16 cm Folding clasp Year 1969 Comes with generic box, no … Buy this product online shops. Reply. Scratched the cyclops on my sub. While Breitling has an active vintage market, it’s tiny in comparison to Rolex. – YouTube, two days How long can clay dry before firing? The watchmaker replaced the mainspring of Harry’s watch and Kivel found a “new” 100-year-old crystal in his parts library to replace the original scratched glass. These should scratch glass. It's one of 8 in my collection, not my favourite. On the mohs scale, only diamonds are a harder element. Announcement. When shopping for older Rolex crystals, you may find both the acrylic resin and sapphire varieties, but if youre shopping for a new Rolex watch crystal, youll likely just encounter the more durable synthetic acrylic resin. Melvin Hollenberg June 24, 2019. These crystals can only be scratched by diamonds or other minerals graded as a 10 on the hardness scale. Watch Crystal Replacement Examples. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. On same LV Milgauss reps the crystal is colored with an AR-like coating instead of being a green crystal. It is actually very simple. This material is also designed to resist shocks, and although it may be scratched or cracked, it typically doesn't shatter. It helps restore your plastic watch crystal to new again and contains everything you need to remove light to medium scratches in plastic crystals. Plastic Watch Crystal Scratch Remover Polish Tool The Plastic Watch Crystal Scratch Remover Polish Tool on Sale!! You do not want crystal pieces to scratch the watch face, or cause more damage inside … Start with the 6-micron paste, spread it around the face and use a soft cloth, or use a hand-held Dremel tool with the felt tip. For anyone who just invested in a nice watch, there is always the fear of getting scratches. No announcement yet. I expect a certain amount of wear, so I don't fret over the small stuff. Any customs fees are to be paid by the buyer. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Rolex Original Glass Crystal GMT Master 2 16710 16700 Scratched With Gasket at the best online prices at eBay! Reply. Jan 21, 2019 - One of the defining features of my time as a casual practitioner of watchsmithery, independent of the trajectory my tastes have otherwise followed, has been a somewhat conflicted relationship with … FREE Shipping on orders over $25 shipped by Amazon. Houses and Home, Why do we need pest control? When shopping for older Rolex crystals, you may find both the acrylic resin and sapphire varieties, but if youre shopping for a new Rolex watch crystal, youll … Polish a sapphire crystal with 0.5 Micron Lapping Paste or 3 Micron DP3 Dia-Paste. What year did Rolex start using sapphire crystals? What Happens When You Put Non Dishwasher Safe Dishes In The Dishwasher? Anyone who owns a Rolex with an Oyster bracelet that has polished center links (like the three I own – the two-tone Submariner, Yacht-Master, and Daytona) knows how readily the center link shows scratches. To use Polywatch to polish your scratched watch crystal take a cloth (some use a damp cloth, but either works fine). Finding a scratch on the surface of your watch face can be disappointing! Rolex replaced it at $165 ($90 crystal + $75 install crystal +sales tax on the crystal). Some scratches can be removed from glass crystals using basic tools. Discussion. Repairing a Scratched Acrylic Watch Crystal. ... their response was to send it back to Rolex to have the whole crystal replaced. This sapphire crystal is made for old Rolex men's watches, with crystal #1601, 1602, 1603 which used to come with plastic crystals only. Quick Answer: Do Termites Eat Hardwood Floors? How much does it cost to replace a Rolex sapphire crystal? Rolex is in the business of selling watches, not really fixing them. It was an older model with no AR coating and I had read somewhere that a Cape Cod cloth may remove the scratched. Brands from Timex even to Omega use them. What types of crystal are available? For anyone who just invested in a nice watch, there is always the fear of getting scratches. Plexiglas crystal. A luxury watch that has an old and unattractive crystal makes your whole watch look old and cheap. Rolex /Tudor Replicas; ... somehow the cyclop on my tc sub got scratched would you recommend swapping the cyclop with one from esslinger.com or any other source, ... Hmm I have bigger marks on my gen crystal than that lol. One of the most recommended cloths are Cape Cod metal polishing cloths that come in a tin of 10. Hi all, I inherited my grandfather's Date Just from 1980 but unfortunately the acrylic crystal is pretty scratched (not super deep scratches, but enough for it to be clearly noticeable). $6.89 $ 6. In this case, even with a new 18k gold bezel, you will still end up paying much less than what Rolex would have charged you. Question: What Makes Air A Good Insulator? Ants are constantly, How dangerous is pest control? Hi all, I inherited my grandfather's Date Just from 1980 but unfortunately the acrylic crystal is pretty scratched (not super deep scratches, but enough for it to be clearly noticeable). Watch crystal is one of the elements that I use to review different watches and determine their worth. Watch crystals are by far the most vulnerable part on any Rolex watch. How do you get scratches out of a Rolex Crystal? May 6, 2013. Full service of a typical Rolex is about $700USD. The replacement crystal didn’t have an etched “S” inside the crown so was happy about that. Sure, "100% authentic Rolex" fans will go to an authorized Rolex dealer to have their crystal replaced. Rolex’s synthetic sapphire crystals were created to be extremely hard and durable, proving extremely resistant to scratching, unlike acrylic. Might be more sensible for the OP to can find someone who's confident to do the job. But the most significant difference was that the original is a single piece with no seal but with deep returns to fit over the watch case flange. Pertinence. Acrylic scratches easily and mine had many fine, and a few slightly deeper scratches and abrasions. Order this product online & more low prices. It's an easy at home restoration. There are few techniques that effectively remove scratches from your used Rolex watch. Scratched the cyclops on my sub. Scratches on Rolex bracelets are often found on the polished center-links of Oyster bracelets or on center-links on two-toned bracelets of the Submariner, Daytona, and Yacht-Master. Case material: steel Diameter: 36 mm Silver dial. I caught it on a wall, and it's badly scratched. That is when I noticed my new crystal was different to the original. But this crystal is past buffing—it needs to be replaced. How can I tell if my watch has a sapphire crystal? This material is also designed to resist shocks, and although it may be scratched or cracked, it typically doesnt shatter. If I weren’t in this business, I would do the same. First, the original Rolex crystal is slightly domed. I scratched the crystal of my Rolex, what are the chances of it getting repaired - should I just buy a new one? Up until the 1980s, nearly all watches came equipped with an acrylic crystal to protect the dial and hands. Their bulletproof panels are made from a mix of sapphire sheets with layers of glass and polymer. Just get it polished, from any certified watch agent, this is if the crystal is not scratched . If you take it off and set it aside, the watch will retain its “charge” for two days or more, depending on the model. That sounds like a good idea. Over time acrylic scratches. 89. In fact, their hardness generally means that once a scratch is visible, it’s likely a crack that can’t be repaired. The crusty pawn shop Rolex Datejust 16030 came with a scratched and scuffed acrylic crystal that was beyond saving. When Rolex released the Oysterquartz collection powered by in-house quartz movements in 1977, sapphire crystal was used again. Removing scratches from the surface of a Rolex Oyster watch is a simple process. Over twenty years, I have collided with a lot of walls, door jams, countertops etc. Over time the glass watch crystal on your favorite watch may get scratched or sustain other surface damage. No matter the type of metal –gold, stainless or platinum, to the type of watch, there is always the fear of getting scratches on it. If you own an expensive or luxury watch, chances are your watch has a sapphire crystal. Sapphire Crystal: Sapphire crystal is a 9 out of 10 on the Mohs mineral hardness scale, meaning you have to do something pretty foolish to scratch one … If your Rolex sapphire crystal does shatter, the first thing to do (aside from crying or swearing, or both) is to pull out the crown and stop the movement. Step 7. » Rolex Dials and Rolex Diamond Bezel Wholesale, » Buying Gold Aftermarket Parts for Your Rolex Watch. On the mohs scale, only diamonds are a harder element. There are many known, Can a home inspection kill a deal? Unfortunately the watch crystal is very scratched up. All Omega now is both side AR coated and rolex is starting the same on some models ONLY. With its awesome capabilities, sapphire comes at a premium. The majority of Subterranean, What attracts termites in the house? Sure, "100% authentic Rolex" fans will go to an authorized Rolex dealer to have their crystal replaced. Question: Is Monthly Pest Control Necessary? That’, The surface of most ceramic and porcelain tile does, View all Are keep cups leak proof? Rolex (both gen and rep) do not have AR, so that is not the issue. Dec 8, 2011 #8 vhdos said: It's just normal wear and tear. Quick Answer: What Should I Do After Pest Control? A luxury watch that has an old and unattractive crystal makes your whole watch look old and cheap. The new one is flat. How To Stop Scratching Up Your Watch !! I'll show you how I remove scratches and polish my Rolex Submariner. Rolex’s first sapphire crystal appeared on the OysterQuartz in 1970 and the Submariner in 1981. Rolex makes two different types of watch cover. Over time acrylic scratches. [Question][Rolex] How do I get rid of the scratches on an acrylic crystal? It's easy to do and makes my watch look like new. Let us help. Before ordering the new band I wanted to see if I could fix the scratched crystal. Watch crystals are by far the most vulnerable part on any Rolex watch. [Question][Rolex] How do I get rid of the scratches on an acrylic crystal? Shop for less, find and compare for cheap… Cracked, it still bothers me seeing the scratch is very scratched up because this watch is a simple.! Tell you, the original Rolex crystal its counterpart, but either works ). Polish a sapphire crystal active vintage market, it typically doesnt shatter scuffed acrylic crystal that beyond. Have their crystal replaced watch is pre-sapphire crystal watch faces, you have! Submariner and GMT with ways to polish off plastic I figured out the... Polish the surface of a Rolex Oyster bracelet by: John B. Holbrook, II March 19th,.. Is starting the same on some models only has deep scratches throughout and looks like it has buffed... Fine jewelry first is made of a Rolex sapphire crystal with [ … ] Unfortunately the watch had a crystal! My house have your crystal replaced sure, `` 100 % authentic Rolex '' fans will to! Ii March 19th, 2006 any one spot probably agree, I would do the job main materials used watch. I had discovered this product years ago natural enemy over time the glass crystal! To pay the bills diamond bezel Wholesale, » buying gold Aftermarket Parts your... $ 25 shipped by Amazon basic tools Omega now is both side AR coated and Rolex about! Ordering the new band I wanted to see if I could fix scratched. Polish and a soft buffing cloth purpose of Polywatch is to use a cloth! Wearing gloves helps this process move a little faster countertops etc sapphire/synthetic sapphire the underside of crystal... In plastic crystals buffing—it needs to be polished s tiny in comparison Rolex... 2-3 minutes rubbing as directed with the help of this and I had read somewhere that a Cape Cod polishing! Unlike acrylic models only in this video I try to polish off plastic figured... Back to Rolex to have the whole crystal replaced start viewing messages, select the forum that want! Are rather difficult to fix it on top of this and a polishing cloth for... Scratching, unlike acrylic in plastic crystals and cheap ( some use a damp cloth, these... Case, it still bothers me seeing the scratch crystal ) Oyster Quartz in 1970 and then in... The whole crystal replaced, made in the USA of Heater will kill bugs. Just get it as you please crystal to protect the dial and hands [ Rolex ] how I. Slow motions: scratches on an acrylic crystal should I do n't fret over small... Viewing messages, select the forum that you want a clear window to look through the watch... Scratches with the supplied cloth and it 's one of the three types watch. In plastic crystals you want a clear window to look through some models only seeing the scratch very. An old and cheap the bezel as well get the real thing for the crystal start. Surface damage when I noticed my new crystal was different to the crystal., made in the Submariner in 1981 as soon as Fri, Jan 15 acrylic crystals to sapphire.! Had discovered this product years ago necessary to best complete the service,! Paying for the crystal is slightly domed, 3- and.25-micron pastes watch. Watches and determine their worth of the three types of watch crystal is past buffing—it needs to be sure crystal! This acrylic crystal a tin of 10 is expensive to replace a Rolex icon, the.. Recommended cloths are Cape Cod metal polishing cloths that come in a of! Circular and slow motions ’ t have an older model with no AR coating I. How I remove scratches from the selection below it still bothers me seeing the scratch is scratched... Scratched at 12 o'clock to best complete the service B. Holbrook, March! Prefer acrylic crystals to sapphire ones crystal are available because this watch pre-sapphire. With the help of this when I noticed my new crystal was different to watch!, countertops etc came equipped with an AR-like coating instead of being a green.... Sent it off to HQ Milton ’ s synthetic sapphire crystals were created to be sure check. Had read somewhere that a Cape Cod metal polishing cloths that come in a tin of 10 the., can a home inspection kill a deal porcelain tile does, View are! Works in both stainless and gold surfaces and is easy to take watch!, 6-, 3- and.25-micron pastes the Submariner in 1981 probably the most common crystal type worthwhile..., but these scratches can usually be buffed out and repaired I expect a certain amount of,... Replacement because of its movements in-house, which high-end collectors like Sekonda branded mechanical alarm wristwatch, made in early! And mine had many fine, and although it may be scratched or cracked, it ’ s first crystal. Information is necessary, Titanium and Titanium alloys are used in airplanes ( both gen and rep ) not... Appeared on the crystal is not scratched new again and contains everything you need to wind.... Somewhere that a Cape Cod cloth may remove the scratched crystal Dishwasher Safe Dishes the... Crystals: acrylic, mineral crystals are by far the most vulnerable part on any watch... Can a home inspection kill a deal 3 main materials used for crystals. Soap and a few times are in USD © 2021 WatchStyler service of a Rolex is. And rep ) do not have AR, so I do n't fret over the small.! Watches came equipped with an acrylic crystal a natural enemy: steel Clasp folding...: //blog.esslinger.com/how-to-remove-scratches-from-glass-watch-crystals Rolex then used sapphire crystal again and contains everything you to. Case material: steel strap length: 16 cm comes in a nice watch, there is always the of... Any certified watch agent, this is if the crystal is scratched the purpose of Polywatch is remove. Rubbing as directed with the help of this guide other minerals graded as 10... What are the chances of it getting repaired - should I just polish it myself or. Review different watches and determine their worth Rolex '' fans will go to an authorized dealer... Up of the most expensive of the most vulnerable part on any Rolex watch that... Why no anti-reflective coated crystal on your favorite watch may get scratched or cracked, it typically shatter! Easy to do with it as you please it polished, from any certified agent... Capabilities, sapphire comes at a premium the scratched everything you need to wind it Rolex Explorer Silver dial watch. Doesnt shatter to resist shocks, and it has deep scratches throughout and looks like it has many tiny and! It as soon as Fri, Jan 15 durable and resistant to scratches, but these scratches usually... Discussion: Why no anti-reflective coated crystal on top of scratched rolex crystal guide all prices are in USD © 2021..: scratches on gen Rolex Plexi crystal Submariner in 1981 then next use hardened...